Atractyloside Calcium Salt is a specific inhibitor of the adenine nucleotide translocase (ANT), which is a mitochondrial ADP/ATP carrier. It is also a proapoptotic ligand of ANT that induces pore formation by ANT, and results in permeabilization of the mitochondria membrane. Studies on rat hearts suggest that Atractyloside inhibits chloride channels from the mitochondrial membrane. It is used to probe the source of procaspase 8 in human fibroblasts and mouse clonal striatal cells, as related to death receptor-mediated apoptosis. Atractyloside induces the release of ahyaluronidase-induced murine WW domain-containing oxidoreductase from cultured COS-7 cells, with respect to tumor necrosis factor cytotoxicity.